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Trade-related Terms 贸易相关术语
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  • 发布:2009-10-10

Trade-related Terms 贸易相关术语

Foreign Trade 对外贸易
Entrepot Trade F。) 转口贸易
Home (Domestic)Trade 内贸
Coastal Trade 沿海贸易
Cross-border Trade 边境贸易
Barter Trade 易货贸易
Compensation Trade 补偿(互补)贸易
Bilateral trade (between China and the US) (中美)双边贸易
Multilateral Trade ( Multilaterism ) 多边贸易
Trading House/Corporation/Firm/Company 贸易公司
Liner Trade 集装箱班轮运输
Contract 合同
Active service contracts on file 在备有效服务合同
Sales Contract 销售合同
Sales Confirmation 销售确认书
Agreement 协议
Vessel sharing Agreement 共用舱位协议
Slot-sharing Agreement 共用箱位协议
Slot Exchange Agreement 箱位互换协议
Amendment 修正合同
Appendix 附录
Quota 配额
Service Contract as provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between
a shipper (or a shippers association) and an ocean carrier
(or conference)in which the shipper makes a commitment
to provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue
over a fixed time period,and the ocean common carrier or
conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedules as well
as a defined service level (such as assured space,transit time,
port rotation or similar service features)。The contract may
also specify provisions in the event of non-performance on the
part of either party 服务合同
A service contract is a confidential contract between a VOCC and
1 or more shippers in which the shipper(s) make a cargo commitment,
and the carrier makes a rate and service commitment.
Only a VOCC (or agreement of VOCCs) may enter into a service
contract as carrier.
NVOCCs may enter into service contracts as shippers, but not as carrier.
Allows a carrier to lawfully charge a negotiated, non-tariff rate.
Allows parties to keep the negotiated rate confidential.
Today, the vast majority of liner cargo in the U.S. trade moves under
confidential service contracts.
Must be with qualified shipper(s).
Must include shipper cargo commitment and carrier rate and service commitments.
Must include shipper certification.
Must be signed by the carrier and the shipper.
Must be filed with the FMC.
Electronic filing is permitted.
Rates kept confidential - certain “essential terms” published.
运价保密 -一些“基本条款”公布
Service Contract Form
Term 1 = origin. 条款1 = 启运地
Term 2 = destination. 条款2 =目的地
Term 3 = a list of commodities. 条款3 = 商品类别
Term 4 – MQC 条款4 = 最低箱量
Term 5 = Service Commitments 条款5 = 服务承诺
Term 6 = Rate Schedule 条款5 = 费率表
Term 7 - Liquidated Damages Clause 条款7 = 清算损失条款
Term 8 – Contract Term 条款8 = 合同期限
Term 9A = Legal names of contract parties. 条款9A = 合同方的法定名称
Term 9B = Identity of contract signatories. 条款9B = 签字人的身份
Term 9C = Date the contract was signed. 条款9C = 合同签字日
Other Provisions 其它条款
Term 10 = shipper certification. 条款10 = 托运人的身份
Term 11 = contract records. 条款11 = 合同记录
Term 12 = other provisions (including force 条款12 = 其它条款(包括不可
majeure, cancellation, arbitration, and 抗拒力,终止,仲裁和
assignment clauses). 转让 条款)
Signature Block 签字栏
The Shipper Party 托运方
Is the Shipper Party qualified? 托运方是否合格?
Must be cargo owner, NVOCC, or shipper’s 必须是货主,无船承运人和托运人协会association.
Cannot be freight forwarder. 不可以是货运代理人
Is the shipper party the party that will use 托运方是否为合同的使用方?
the contract?
Cannot be agent or affiliate of shipper party. 不可以是托运方的代理和附属公司
Exception: Affiliate of BCO may be shipper 特殊情况:如果直接货主的附属
party if it will be responsible for the freight. 公司负责运费,其可以是托运方。
Must Use Full Legal Name 必须使用法定的全称
The full legal name and business address 服务合同中必须显示
of the shipper party must appear on the 托运方的法定全称和营业地址。
service contract.
Should usually include a corporate identifier 通常必须包括公司的标志符
(Inc., Ltd., Co.). (Inc., Ltd., Co.)
Contract heading, Term 9, and signature 合同的标题,第9条款
block should match. 和签字栏必须一致。
Affiliates 附属公司
Shipper party may list affiliates entitled to use 托运方可以在合同第9条款中
the service contract in Section 9. 列入有权使用服务合同的附属公司。
An affiliate is a person that controls, is 附属公司是指拥有托运方,
controlled by, or is under common control 被托运方拥有或被同一公司拥有的实体。
with, the shipper party.
The full legal name and business address of 必须包括每一个附属公司
each affiliate must be included. 的法定全称和营业地址。
Trade names may also be indicated in 除法定全称外,也可列入商号。
addition to the full legal name.
NVOCCs may not list affiliates. 无船承运人不可列入附属公司。
When the Service Contract May be Used 何时可以使用服务合同?
A service contract may not be used until the 只有在SECAUCUS办公室
Secaucus office notifies the agent that the 通知代理服务合同已经向FMC
service contract has been filed with the FMC. 登记后,服务合同才可以使用。
The Secaucus office will issue Daily Filing Notices. SECAUCUS办公室将发出“每日登记通知”。
Enforcement of Service Contract Terms 服务合同条款的执行
not to deviate from the service contract terms. 不可以偏离服务合同条款。
A contract may be amended to reduce MQC or 服务合同可进行修改减少
extend the contract term. 最低箱量或延长服务合同
If the MQC (as amended, if applicable) is not 如果最低货量没有完成,
satisfied, an invoice for liquidated damages 在合同到期后30天内
must be issued within 30 days of the end of 发出清算损失发票。
the service contract term.
Service Contract must be with qualified shipper. 服务合同必须与合格的托运人签订。
Shipper Party is person that will use the contract. 托运方为将会使用合同的人。
Full name (and trade name, if any) and address of 条款9中必须显示托运方和
shipper party and any affiliates entitled to use the 任何有权使用合同的附属公司的
contract must appear in Term 9. 全称(和商号,如果有)和营业地址。
If contract is with Shipper’s Association, Members 如果与托运人协会签订合同,
entitled to use the contract must be listed. 合同中必须列入有权使用合同的成员公司。
All parties entitled to use contract must certify status. 所有有权使用合同的各方必须证明其身份。
Contract may not be used until filed with the FMC. 在没有向FMC登记前,合同不可以使用。
Only shipper party and named affiliates (or listed 只有托运方和指名的附属公司
members if SA) may use the contract. (或列入的托运人协会的成员公司)
Contract Terms (and conditions ) 合同条款
Article 条
Section 节/项
Item 款
Stipulation 规定
Essential terms 必备(主要)条款
Revision 修改
Alteration 更改
Contract Signatory 合同签署方(人)
Merchant 签约方
Head-Contractor 总承包商
Sub-Contractor 分包商
Parties to the contract 合同(协议签约)有关各方
E. 买卖方、中介
Manufacturer 制造(厂)商
Buyer 买方
Seller 卖方
Broker 中间人/ 掮客(跑街先生)
Middle-man 中间人(商)
OTI 远洋运输中介公司
NVO (NVOCC) Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier 无船承运人
NVOCC Services may include but are not limited to: 无船承运人提供的服务包括但不局限于:
1) purchasing transportation services from a VOCC and offering 向船舶承运人购买再向
such services for resale to other persons 他人转售运输服务
2) payment of port to port or multi-modal transportation charges 支付港到港或全程
3) entering into affreightment agreements with underlying shippers 与大货主签订运输合同
4) issuing bills of lading or equivalent documents 签发提单或相同效用单证
5) arranging for inland transportation and paying for inland freight 安排内陆运输,从全程
charges on through transportation movements 运费中支付内陆运费
6) paying lawful compensation to ocean freight forwarders 向货代支付合理佣金
7) leasing containers 负责租用(集装箱)货柜
8) entering into arrangements with origin or destination agents 与始发地、目的地代理签
Any person operating in the US as an NVOCC shall furnish evidence 在美国经营无船承运人
of financial responsibility in the amount of USD 75000 必需提供保证金75000美元
Ocean Freight Broker 远洋揽货代理( 船东订舱/营销代理 )
Ocean Freight Broker is an entity 远洋揽货代理系
which is engaged by a carrier to secure cargo for such carrier 由船东经营,专事为本公司揽货,
and/or offer for sale ocean transportation services 提供远洋运输服务的机构。对外
which holds itself out to the public as one who negotiates 负责与收、发货人洽谈运输条款
between shipper or consignee and carrier for the purchase, 出售舱位等事宜。
sale,conditions and terms of transportation。
An Ocean Freight Broker is not required to be licensed to 远洋揽货代理无需专办经营
perform those services。 执照
Cargo Forwarding Agent / Cargo Forwarder 货运代理
Freight Forwarding / Forwarder 货运代理
Ocean Freight Forwarder 远洋货运代理人
Freight Forwarding services may include,but are not limited to: 货代服务包括但不局限于:
1) ordering cargo to port 安排将货物运送至港区(口)
2) preparing and/or processing export declarations 安排出口报关
3) booking,arranging for or confirming cargo space 安排订舱,确认舱位
4) preparing or processing delivery orders or dock receipts 安排装货单证(场站收据)
5) preparing and/or processing ocean bills of lading 安排海运提单
6) preparing or processing consular documents or 安排出口单证及
arranging for their certification 货物出口相关证书
7) arranging for warehouse storage 安排仓库储放
8) arranging for cargo insurance 安排货运保险
9) clearing shipments in accordance with Government 根据政府有关出口规定
export regulations 办理货物出口清关手续
10) preparing and/or sending advance notifications of 缮制货运通知单及相关单证
shipments or other documents to banks,shippers,or 并按要求分送银行、货主
consignees,as required 或收货人
11) handling freight or other money advanced by shippers, 安排支付发货人应付海运费
or remitting or advancing freight or other money or credit 和其它费用;支付、电汇
in connection with the dispatching of shipments 海运费、及运输相关费用
12) coordinating the movement of shipments from origin to vessel 协调货物自出运地至船舶
13) giving expert advice to exporters concerning letters of credit, 为出口商提供有关信用证、
other documents,license or inspections,or on problems 其它单证、执照、检验及
about cargoes dispatch。 其与货物出运相关问题的专业咨询服务
Any person operating in the US as an Ocean Freight Forwarder 在美国经营货代必需提供
shall furnish evidence of financial responsibility in the amount 保证金50000美元
of USD 50000。
Shipping Agency / Agent 船务代理
Supplier / Provider 供方
Head Office (Headquarters) 总公司
Board of Directors 董事会
Director 董事
CEO 首席执行官(总裁)
CFO 财务总监
Regional Office 区域性公司
Local Office 地区公司
Affiliate 附属(子)公司
Branch Office 分公司
Sub-office 支公司
Subsidiaries 下属公司
Liaison Office 联络处
Rep. Office (Representative Office) 代表(办事)处
Chief Representative 首席代表
Group Company 集团公司
Conglomerate 集团公司(企业集团)
Shipper SPR 发货人/托运人
Shipper may mean : 发货人可以是:
1) a cargo owner 货物持有者(真正意义上的货主)
2) the person for whose account the ocean
transportation is provided 远洋运输费用支付人
3) the person to whom delivery is to be made 收货人
4) a shippers’ association 货主协会
an NVOCC that accepts responsibility for 承担支付运价本费率或服务
payment of all charges applicable 合同费用的无船承运人
under the tariff or service contract
Consolidator A company that consolidates freight owned by various parties
into one container. 拼箱货发货人
Consignor 发货人
Consignee 收货人
Notify Party 通知方
Second Notify Party 第二通知方
Customer /Client (customer) 客户
Direct Account ( customer ) 直接客户
Target Customer (目标)大客户
BCO Beneficial Owner of the cargo 直接货主(制造厂商)
Big Accounts 大客户
VIP Customers 重要客户
Agreement / Contract Customer 协议客户
Long-term Customer 长期客户
Potential Customer 潜在客户
Picky customer 好挑剔的客户
Negotiation (Business Talk ) 谈判
Compromise ( Meet half-way ) 折衷妥协
50 / 50 ( fifty to fifty / fifty fifty ) 折衷
Win-Win 双赢
not a matter of percentage but principle 不是占多大比重而是原则问题

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